Threat Modeling during Product Design

Threat Modeling - IRM Consulting & Advisory

How to conduct Threat Modeling during Product Design

Threat modeling is a structured approach of identifying and prioritizing potential threats to a system to determine the value that potential mitigations would have in reducing or neutralizing those threats.

When should I use Threat Modeling?

Use Threat Modeling at the early stages of your Product and Application Design, and every time there is a change in Product, Application Functionality, System Infrastructure or System Architecture. You can also use Threat Modeling after a Security Incident has occurred or new vulnerabilities discovered.

Without Threat Modeling, your security is a gamble—and in today’s business environment, your SaaS Products & Services are sure to be exposed to Business Loss.

Threat Modeling terms you need to know

A threat agent is an individual or group that is capable of carrying out a particular threat. It is fundamental to identify who would want to exploit the assets of a company, how they might use them against the company, and if they would be capable of doing so.

Likelihood is a measure of the probability of a threat being carried out.

Controls are safeguards or countermeasures that you put in place in order to avoid, detect, counteract, or minimize potential threats against your information, systems, or other assets.

Preventions are controls that may completely prevent a particular attack from being possible. For example, if you identify a threat that your users’ personal information may be identified by certain application logging, and you decide to completely remove that logging, you have prevented that particular threat.

Threat Modeling - IRM Consulting & Advisory

Mitigations are controls that are put in place to reduce either the likelihood or the impact of a threat, while not necessarily completely preventing it.

A data flow diagram is a depiction of how information flows through your system. It shows each place that data is input into or output from each process or subsystem. It includes anywhere that data is stored in the system, either temporarily or long-term.

A trust boundary (in the context of threat modeling) is a location on the data flow diagram where data changes its level of trust. Any place where data is passed between two processes is typically a trust boundary.

What Threat Modeling Methodology to use

Select a Threat Modeling Methodology that is right for your organization.

Threat Modeling - IRM Consulting & Advisory


STRIDE, is a model of threats implemented to help consider and identify potential threats to a system. The STRIDE methodology aims to ensure that an application meets the security directives of the CIA triad (Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability), alongside Authentication, Authorization, and Non-Repudiation. The STRIDE formula is divided into 5 main categories:

  • Spoofing – Spoofing attacks involve impersonating another person or computer without their knowledge, which violates authentication
  • Tampering – This involves modifying something on memory, disk, network, or somewhere else, which violates integrity.
  • Repudiation – Repudiation involves claiming that you didn’t do something or were not involved or making it impossible to link an action back to you, which violates non-repudiation
  • Information Disclosure – This involves disclosing information to an authorized user, which violates confidentiality. Several systems contain confidential and sensitive information that is desired by a malicious attacker.
  • Denial of Service – This involves exhausting resources required to offer services, which violates availability. Systems are typically used for a specific purpose, like a banking application
  • Elevation of Privilege – This involves allowing someone to do what they are unauthorized to do, which violates authorization.


DREAD, is about evaluating each existing vulnerability using a mathematical formula to retrieve the vulnerability’s corresponding risk. The DREAD formula is divided into 5 main categories:

  • Damage – how bad would an attack be?
  • Reproducibility – how easy it is to reproduce the attack?
  • Exploitability – how much work is it to launch the attack?
  • Affected users – how many people will be impacted?
  • Discoverability – how easy it is to discover the threat?
Threat Modeling - IRM Consulting & Advisory

DREAD formula is:

Risk Value = (Damage + Affected users) x (Reproducibility + Exploitability + Discoverability).

Then the risk level is determined using defined thresholds below.

Threat Modeling - IRM Consulting & Advisory


PASTA, Attack Simulation & Threat Analysis is a complete methodology to perform application threat modeling. It introduces a risk-centric methodology aimed at applying security countermeasures that are commensurate to the possible impact that could be

This metodology introduces a complete risk analysis and evaluation procedures that you can follow to evaluate the risk for each of the identified threat. The main difference in using this approach is that you should evaluate the impact early on in the analysis

The idea behind addressing the impact earlier in this approach is that the audience that knows impact knows the consequences on a product or use case failures more than participants in the threat analysis phase.

Application security risk assessments are not enough because they are very binary and leverage a control framework basis for denoting risks. Contextually look at threats impacts, probability and effectiveness of countermeasures that may be present.

R = (T * V * P * I) / Countermeasures

Rank Risks

Using risk matrix rank risks from most severe to least severe based on Means, Motive & Opportunity. Below is a sample risk matrix table, depending on your risk approach you can define different risk ranking matrix:

Risk Value:

  • 01 to 12 → Risk Level: Notice
  • 13 to 18 → Risk Level: Low
  • 19 to 36 → Risk Level: Medium
  • 37 to 54 → Risk Level: High
Threat Modeling - IRM Consulting & Advisory

Use a Threat Modeling Tool

A threat modeling tool is defined as a software that enables you to proactively identify and resolve possible security threats to your software, data, or device. A good Threat Modeling tool suggests mitigation strategies for these vulnerabilities which can be added to the application’s development plan.

Ownership & Accountability

Identify risk owners and agree on risk mitigation with risk owners and stakeholders. Provide the needed controls in forms of code upgrades and configuration updates to reduce risks to acceptable levels.

For the assessors: After defining and analyzing the risks, the assessor should be working on the mitigation plan by firstly identifying risk owners which is the personnel that is responsible for mitigating the risk. i.e. one of the information security team or the development team.

For the designers or the architects: they should assign the risk mitigation to the development team to consider it while building the application.

Decision Making

Reduce: building controls in the form of code upgrades; confirming a specific design for the application; building a specific configuration during the deployment phase to reduce risk.

Transfer: The risk can be transferred through Insurance Protection if a third party owns and manages controls.

Avoid: avoiding the risk is disabling a specific function in the application that is the source for that risk.

Accept: Low risk that is within acceptable criteria, the risk owner can accept that risk.

Selecting one of the controls to reduce the risk, either by upgrading the code, or building a specific configuration during the deployment phase and so on. Talk to a Cybersecurity Trusted Advisor.

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